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TM Research Summary
Summary Continued
TM References 1-197
References 198-378
New Studies
TM Research Publications
Comparison of Techniques
Long-Term Effects of TM
TM Research Issues
Rebuttal of NRC Report
Rebuttal of AHRQ Review
Commitment to Science
Academic Recognition
No-Effect Studies

References

Reference numbers 1-197

Reference numbers 198-378

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1. Orme-Johnson DW, Farrow JT. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: Collected Papers, Volume 1. Rheinweiler, West Germany: MERU Press, 1977

2. Chalmers RA et al. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: Collected Papers, Volumes 2, 3 and 4. Vlodrop, Netherlands: MERU Press, 1989

3. Wallace RK et al. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: Collected Papers, Volumes 5 and 6. Fairfield, Iowa: Maharishi University of Management Press, 1995, in press

4. Orme-Johnson DW. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1987 49:493-507

5. Orme-Johnson DW, Herron R. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. American Journal of Managed Care 1997 3:135-144

6. Herron RE, Hillis SL. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec: an update-accumulative decline of 55% over a 6-year period. American Journal of Health Promotion 2000 14:284-291

7. Herron RE et al. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996 10:208-216

8. Herron RE. Can the Transcendental Meditation program reduce medical expenditures of older people? A longitudinal medical cost minimization study in Canada. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17:415-442

9. Schneider RH et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995 26:820-827

10. Alexander CN et al. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28:228-237

11. Alexander CN et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1989 57:950-964

12. Schneider RH et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension 2005 18:88-98

13. Herron R et al. Cost-effective hypertension management: comparison of drug therapies with an alternative program. American Journal of Managed Care 1996 2:427-437

14. Castillo-Richmond A et al. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573

15. Fields JZ et al. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine. American Journal of Cardiology 2002 89:952-958

16. Schneider RH et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95:1060-1064

17. Barnes VA et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension-eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17:201-216

18. Alexander CN et al. Randomized controlled trial of stress reduction on cardiovascular and all cause mortality in the elderly: results of 8-year and 15-year follow-ups. Circulation 1996 93:629

19. Barnes VA et al. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17:366-369

20. Barnes VA et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51:597-605

21. Wenneberg SR et al. A controlled study of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure. International Journal of Neuroscience 1997 89:15-28

22. Walton KG et al. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004 1032:211-215

23. Rainforth MV et al. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9:520-528

24. Anderson JW et al. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 2008 21:310-316

25. Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2:207-218

26. Walton KG et al. Review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease-risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Cardiology in Review 2004 12:262-266

27. Walton KG et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28:106-123

28. Walton KG et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Behavioral Medicine 2005 30:173-183

29. Alexander CN et al. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 1994 352:243-264

30. Agarwal BL, Kharbanda A. Effect of transcendental meditation on mild and moderate hypertension. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1981 29:591-596

31. Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30

32. Schneider RH et al. Behavioral treatment of hypertensive heart disease in African Americans: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial. Behavioral Medicine 2001 27:83-95

33. Schneider RH et al. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:159-160

34. Barnes VA et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89:464-476

35. Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792

36. King MS et al. Transcendental Meditation, hypertension and heart disease. Australian Family Physician 2002 31:164-168

37. Orme-Johnson DW et al. Reply to critics of research on Transcendental Meditation in the prevention and control of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2005 23:1107-1108

38. Walton KG et al. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1:263-283

39. Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. 1988 report. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988 148:1023-1038

40. Schneider RH et al. In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension: a review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. In EH Johnson et al. (eds), Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension (pp.291-312). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing, 1992

41. Jayadevappa R et al. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 2007 17:72-77

42. Paul-Labrador M et al. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine2006 166:1218-1224

43. Zamarra JW et al. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 1996 77:867-870

44. Cunningham CH et al. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome X: a pilot study. American Journal of Cardiology 2000 85:653-655

45. Calderon R et al. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans and whites: a review. Ethnicity and Disease 1999 9:451-462

46. Cooper M, Aygen M. Effect of meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 1978 95:1-2

47. Cooper M, Aygen M. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 1979 5:24-27

48. Schneider RH et al. Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1998 60:38-41

49. Van Wijk EP et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on ultraweak photon emission. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008 14:241-250

50. Van Wijk EP et al. Anatomical characterization of human ultraweak photon emission in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and control subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006 12:31-38

51. Alexander CN et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: a review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11:13-87

52. Haratani T, Henmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 1990 37:729

53. Royer A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: a longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11:221-238

54. Gelderloos P et al. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: a review. International Journal of the Addictions 1991 26:293-325

55. Tabogi S. Effetti indotti dal programma di Meditazione Trascendentale sulla tolleranza glicidica. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Trieste, Italy, 1983. Summarized in Collected Papers, Volume 4 (pp.2289-2295) - see reference 2

56. Yee AC, Dissanayake AS. Glucose tolerance and the Transcendental Meditation program (a pilot study). Paper presented at the International Congress on Research on Higher States of Consciousness at the Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, 4-6 December 1980. Also in Collected Papers, Volume 3 (pp.1846-1850) - see reference 2

57. Bauhofer U. Das programm der Transzendentalen Meditation in der Behandlung von Adipositas. In Collected Papers, Volume 3 (pp.2196-2206) - see reference 2

58. Wallace RK et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16:53-58

59. Toomey M et al. The practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program reverses the physiological ageing process. In Collected Papers, Volume 3 (pp.1871-1878) - see reference 2

60. Toomey M et al. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and reversal of the ageing process: a longitudinal study. In Collected Papers, Volume 3 (pp.1878-1883) - see reference 2

61. Wallace RK et al. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 1983 45:41-46

62. Glaser JL et al. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1992 15:327-341

63. Smith D et al. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Transcendental Meditation. Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice 1997 4:35-37

64. Jedrczak A et al. The TM-Sidhi program, age, and brief tests of perceptual-motor speed and non-verbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1986 42:161-164

65. Goddard PH. Reduced age-related declines in P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 1989 26:S29

66. McDonagh JM, Egenes T. The Transcendental Meditation technique and temperature homeostasis. In Collected Paper, Volume 1 (pp.261-262) - see reference 1

67. Wallace RK. Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 1970 167:1751-1754

68. Wallace RK et al. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 1971 221:795-799

69. Wallace RK et al. The physiology of meditation. Scientific American 1972 226:84-90

70. Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encephale 1984 10:139-144

71. Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 1987 42:879-881

72. Travis FT. Relationship between meditation practice and transcendent states of consciousness. Biofeedback 2009 (in press)

73. Jevning R et al. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 1992 16:415-424

74. Travis FT, Pearson C. Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of 'Consciousness Itself'. International Journal of Neuroscience 2000 100:77-89

75. Travis FT et al. Physiological patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared with patterns while reading Sanskrit and a modern language. International Journal of Neuroscience 2001 109:71-80

76. Wilson AF et al. Marked reduction of forearm carbon dioxide production during states of decreased metabolism. Physiology and Behavior 1987 41:347-352

77. Wolkove N et al. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on breathing and respiratory control. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 1984 56:607-612

78. Jevning R et al. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation: modulation of red cell metabolism. American Journal of Physiology 1983 245 (Cell Physiol.14):C457-C461

79. Jevning R et al. Modulation of red cell metabolism by states of decreased activation: comparison between states. Physiology and Behavior 1985 35:679-682

80. Jevning R et al. Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behavior. American Journal of Physiology 1978 235:R89-R92

81. Jevning R et al. Muscle and skin blood flow and metabolism during states of decreased activation. Physiology and Behavior 1982 29:343-348

82. Jevning R et al. Forearm blood flow and metabolism during stylized and unstylized states of decreased activation. American Journal of Physiology 1983 245 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol.14):R110-R116

83. Jevning R et al. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behavior 1996 59:399-402

84. Barnes VA et al. Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999 61:525-531

85. Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic patterns during respiratory suspensions: possible markers of Transcendental Consciousness. Psychophysiology 1997 34:39-46

86. Badawi K et al. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1984 46:267-276

87. Farrow JT, Hebert JR. Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychosomatic Medicine 1982 44:133-153

88. Garnier D et al. Pulmonary ventilation during the Transcendental Meditation technique: applications in preventive medicine. Est-Medicine 1984 4:867-870

89. Allison J. Respiratory changes during Transcendental Meditation. Lancet 1970 7651:833

90. Farrell DJ. The reduction in metabolic rate and heart rate of man during meditation. In LE Mount (ed.), Energy Metabolism (pp.279-282). EAAP Publication # 26. London: Butterworth & Co., 1980

91. Jevning R et al. Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behavior 1978 10:54-60

92. Jevning R et al. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 1978 34:618-619

93. Infante JR et al. Catecholamine levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Physiology and Behavior 2001 72:141-146

94. Infante JR, Peran F, Martinez M, Roldan A, Poyatos R, Ruiz C et al. ACTH and beta-endorphin in Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behavior 1998 64(3):311-315

95. Tooley GA et al. Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation. Biological Psychology 2000 53:69-78

96. Bujatti M, Riederer P. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Neural Transmission 1976 39:257-267

97. Elias AN, Wilson AF. Serum hormonal concentrations following Transcendental Meditation: potential role of gamma aminobutyric acid. Medical Hypotheses 1995 44:287-291

98. Elias AN et al. Ketosis with enhanced GABAergic tone promotes physiological changes in Transcendental Meditation. Medical Hypotheses 2000 54:660-662

99. O'Halloran JP et al. Hormonal control in a state of decreased activation: potentiation of arginine vasopressin secretion. Physiology and Behavior 1985 35:591-595

100. Lang R et al. Sympathetic activity and Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Neural Transmission 1979 44:117-135

101. Jevning R et al. Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone, and insulin during acute hypometabolic state in man. Physiology and Behavior 1987 40:603-606

102. Jevning R et al. Plasma prolactin and growth hormone during meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 1978 40:329-333

103. Jevning R et al. Behavioral alteration of plasma phenylalanine concentration. Physiology and Behavior 1977 19:611-614

104. McCuaig LW. Salivary electrolytes, proteins and pH during Transcendental Meditation. Experientia 1974 30:988-989

105. Kemmerling T. Wirkung der Transzendentalen Meditation auf den Muskeltonus. Psychopathometrie 1978 4:437-438

106. Travis FT et al. A self-referential default brain state: patterns of coherence, power, and eLORETA sources during eyes-closed rest and the Transcendental Meditation practice. Cognitive Processes 2009 (in press)

107. Hebert JR et al. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing 2005 85:2213-2232

108. Yamamoto S et al. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama 2006 60:51-58

109. Travis F, Arenander A. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on interhemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 2006 116:1519-38

110. Travis FT. Autonomic and EEG patterns distinguish transcending from other experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2001 42:1-9

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113. Banquet JP. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1973 35:143-151

114. Dillbeck MC, Bronson EC. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 14:147-151

115. Travis FT et al. Cortical plasticity, contingent negative variation, and transcendent experiences during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Biological Psychology 2001 55:41-55

116. Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice: a basis for a neural model of TM practice. Consciousness and Cognition 1999 8:302-18

117. Lyubimov NN. Changes in electroencephalogram and evoked potentials during application of a special form of psychological training (meditation). Human Physiology (Fiziologiya Cheloveka) 1999 25:171-180

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120. Newberg AB et al. Cerebral glucose metabolic changes associated with a meditation based relaxation technique. Society of Nuclear Medicine 2006 47:314P

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123. Orme-Johnson DW, Gelderloos P. Topographic brain mapping during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 1988 38:427-434

124. Gaylord C et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46:77-86

125. Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. EEG coherence and power during Yogic Flying: investigating the mechanics of the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1990 54:1-12

126. Orme-Johnson DW, Haynes CT. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 13:211-217

127. Nidich S et al. Kohlbergian moral perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 1983 12:166-173

128. Dillbeck MC, Araas-Vesely S. Participation in the Transcendental Meditation program and frontal EEG coherence during concept learning. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986 29:45-55

129. Dillbeck MC et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 15:151-157

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131. Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. Field model of consciousness: EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 49:203-211

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133. Travis F et al. Higher development and leadership: toward brain measures of managerial capacity. Journal of Business and Psychology 2009 (in press)

134. Orme-Johnson DW et al. Neuroimaging of meditation's effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 2006 17:1359-1363

135. Travis FT et al. Patterns of EEG coherence, power and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 2002 61:293-319

136. Mason LI et al. Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Sleep 1997 20:102-110

137. Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1975 39:519-522

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141. Travis FT, Tecce JJ. Effects of distracting stimuli on CNV amplitude and reaction time. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1998 31:45-50

142. Travis FT. The junction point model: a field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming relating dream witnessing, the waking/sleeping transition, and Transcendental Meditation in terms of a common psychophysiologic state. Dreaming 1994 4:91-104

143. Travis F et al. Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed Object-Referral/Self-Referral continuum of self-awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 2004 13:401-420

144. Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. All approaches to preventing and reversing the effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998 12:297-299

145. MacLean CR et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after four months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 22:277-295

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150. Mills PJ et al. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1990 34:29-33

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154. Wallace RK et al. Academic achievement and the paired Hoffman reflex in students practicing meditation. International Journal of Neuroscience 1984 24:261-266

155. Wilson AF et al. Transcendental Meditation and asthma. Respiration 1975 32:74-80

156. Brooks JS, Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 1985 64:212-215

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182. Kroener D. Transzendentale Meditation und ihre Indikationen für den niedergelassenen Arzt. Biologische Medizin 1980 9:122-127

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